China University Student Dataset (CUSD) Project 中国大学生数据库 

China University Student Dataset (CUSD) Project

The China University Student Database (CUSD) project analyzes the social and geographic familial background of over 450,000 Chinese students enrolled in tertiary educational institutions  during the late Qing and Beiyang period (1905-1927), under the Guomindang (1928-1949), and in the People’s Republic of China (1949-) including Chinese students studying abroad as well as domestically.

Co-Investigators/Collaborators

Background

“Modern” four-year university education began in China with the dissolution of the civil service examination system in 1905 and the systematic introduction of a Western curriculum accompanying the establishment of the first public university in 1898, the first missionary universities in 1900, and the first private universities in 1911. By 1932 there were already 76 recognized four-year universities in China and these numbers grew by 1947 and 1951 to 130 and 206.  Today there are 1219 four-year universities including 112 211-elite universities and 39 985-elite universities in the Peoples Republic of China, 126 universities in Taiwan, and 8 UGC universities in Hong Kong.  Thanks to the very recent expansion of tertiary education over the past several decades, China has the largest national tertiary educated population in the world. According to the 2010 Chinese census, of the 1.33 billion people in China, 119 million had received tertiary education. According to the 2020 Chinese census, of the 1.41 billion people in China, the number of tertiary educated people has almost doubled to 218 million.

CUSD Data Series

We distinguish between four groups of tertiary educated students  – QBY, ROC, PRC, and Overseas – and have created or are in the process of creating four different CUSD data series: the CUSD-QBY, the CUSD-ROC, the CUSD-PRC and, the CUSD-OS.

The CUSD-QBY includes 92,285 students who attended 289 Chinese proto-university tertiary institutions called daxuetang 大学堂, gaodengxuetang 高等学堂, or zhuanmenxuexiao 专门学校 dating back at least to 1902: 19,193 graduates who attended 110 such tertiary institutions in 1900-1911; 65,319 who attended 193 such tertiary institutions in 1912-1927; and 7,773 who attended 39 recognized Chinese universities 大学 in 1928-1937. As of March 2024, the CUSD-QBY includes 129,742 records for 92,285 unique tertiary students.

The CUSD-ROC includes all or partial student registration records for 40 Republican Chinese universities.  While these represent only one-third of the  universities of that time, they account for 90 percent of the 186,843 surviving student registration records we have located in mainland Chinese university and administrative archives. As of March 2024, the CUSD-ROC includes student records for 154,833 unique undergraduate students.  We are still in the process of completing the data entry for several of these universities, as well as acquiring access to the Republican student records for other universities which we hope to include in the CUSD-ROC.

The CUSD-PRC includes all the student registration records for two Chinese universities: 64,500 who attended Peking University (PKU) perhaps the most prestigious liberal arts university in China in 1952-1955, 1972-87, 1989-1999; and 86,393 undergraduates who attended Suzhou University (SZU) the highest ranked Provincial university in China from 1933 to 2003.  In addition, we have begun data entry for an equally large student population from Zhejiang University.

The CUSD-OS already includes 52,703 overseas Chinese students, that is three-quarters of the 65-75,000 Chinese students who graduated from foreign universities from the beginning of the twentieth century through the early years of the People’s Republic of China.  The current population available for immediate analysis include 64,164 records for 32,543 Chinese students in Japan, 12,457 records for 11,289 Chinese students in the USA, 7,402 records for 7,356 students in Europe, and almost a thousand students in the Soviet Union, for a total of 97,186 entered, processed, and linked records for the 52,703 unique international Chinese students.

The CUSD-OS includes information only on the students themselves since it is based on graduation and immigration records while  the CUSD-QBY includes the names of 23,076 parents, grandparents, and great grandparents, and the CUSD-ROC also includes the names, occupations, and addresses of 50,000 parents, 20,000 grandparents, 10,000 great grandparents, and well over 30,000 guarantors, and the CUSD-PRC includes names and occupations of household head for all SZU students, and names and occupation for both parents for almost all PKU students, since they are based on matriculating student records.

On-Line User Guide

梁晨、任韵竹、 李中清, 2017, 《民国大学生数据库用户手册》。 (unpublished).

CUSD Project Histories

The idea of creating a China University Student Database (CUSD) dates back to Spring 1998 when during Peking University’s Centenary celebrations then PKU Provost, Chi Huisheng, told James Z. Lee about the student archival records in the PKU University Archives.  Lee subsequently obtained permission to enter these records for all undergraduate students from PKU and SZU and recruited HKBU Professor, Ruan Danching (sociology) to be co-I.  Actual data entry for what would become the CUSD-PRC did not however begin for PKU until 2003 under Ruan’s direction, coordinating with PKU Professor Yang Shanhua (sociology), and Yang’s PhD student, Zhang Hao, and for SZU until 2006 / 2007, under the direction of SZU Vice President Yin Aisun and SZU professor, Zhang Zhaoyu (archives), and the supervision of PKU and University of Michigan Postdoctoral Fellow, Liang Chen.

It was Chen LIANG who first proposed in 2010 that we expand our study of proprietary undergraduate student registration cards in the CUSD-PRC and create a CUSD-ROC that would include similar Republican University student records stored in publicly accessible local and provincial archives rather than proprietary university archives.  Chen initially organized the preliminary coding of 80,425 student records from such sources,[1] supplemented by James LEE and Mingyu ZHANG who added 51,637 student records from university proprietary records.[2]  Bamboo REN added another 30,724 students records from publicly accessible student records for ten other tertiary educational institutions,[3] 18,651 from published student records or alumni lists, and 12,073 from publicly accessible archival records, and together with Haozhe HAN and Chengcheng LIANG completed the recoding of over 30,000 previously incompletely coded archival records.[4]  In addition, in 2023-2024, Haozhe Han added data for some 20,000 new students to the CUSD-ROC expanding our data coverage from 36 to 40 tertiary educational institutions.

 As of March 2024, the CUSD-ROC includes 186,843 student records for 154,833 unique undergraduate students including 138,293 students from 27 of 55 MOE recognized universities (daxue大学), 15,408 students from 11 of 75 institutes (xueyuan学院), and 1,132 students from two specialized tertiary schools (zhuanke xuexiao专科学校) summarized in the following table.[5]

CUSD-ROC University Records and Students

学校 学校驻地 类型 建校/大学成立时间 数据起止时间 学生记载 学生人数
战前 战时 战后
北京大学 北京 长沙、昆明 北京 国立 1898/1912 1898-1946 12885 12690
北京大学医学院 北京 北京 北京 国立 1912/1937 1940-1950 1073 911
清华大学 北京 长沙、昆明 北京 国立 1909/1925 1921-1951 16681 16117
辅仁大学 北京 北京 北京 教会 1925 1938-1941 3064 3046
燕京大学 北京 成都 北京 教会 1919 1947-1949 3486 2957
朝阳法学院 北京  成都 北京 私立 1911 1942-1947 1252 1233
中法大学 北京 昆明 北京 私立 1920 1924-1949 1325 1299
暨南大学 上海 建阳 国立 1906/1927 1933-1949 3197 3195
交通大学 上海 上海/重庆 上海 国立 1896/1921 1913-1949 9932 8421
上海商学院 上海 上海 上海 国立 1917/1932 1921-1945 1691 1690
复旦大学 上海 重庆 上海 国立 1905 1930-1932 2778 2297
上海市立工业专科高级职业学校 上海 市立 1945 1945-1956 901 892
东吴大学法学院 上海 重庆 上海 教会 1896/1900 1918-1952 5105 3740
沪江大学 上海 重庆 上海 教会 1906/1915 1936-1952 2744 2737
圣约翰大学 上海 上海 上海 教会 1879/1905 1919-1952 5325 5307
大同大学 上海 上海 上海 私立 1911/1922 1930-1952 9050 8836
中央大学 南京 重庆 南京 国立 1902/1928 1923-1930 1825 1825
金陵大学 南京 成都 南京 教会 1888/1910 1919-1949 13357 9170
金陵女子文理学院 南京 成都 南京 教会 1915 1943-1950 6097 1636
浙江大学 杭州 遵义、湄潭、永兴 杭州 国立 1897/1917 1910-1952 23795 16222
之江文理学院 杭州  上海、邵武、贵阳、 重庆 杭州 教会 1845/1914 1936-1948 4526 3757
厦门大学 厦门 长汀 厦门 私/国立 1921 1932-1936 798 694
协和大学 福州 邵武 福州 教会 1911/1917 1927-1951 1886 1886
国立师范学院 衡山 衡阳 国立 1938 1933-1948 1058 1055
湖南大学 长沙 辰溪 长沙 国立 1924 1941-1950 2682 2136
湘雅医学院 长沙 贵阳 长沙 私/国立 1914 1925-1950 768 767
中山大学 广州 澄江、韶关、 坪石 广州 国立 1924/1926 1921-1951 21932 18058
岭南大学 广州 香港 广州 教会 1888/1918 1923-1952 2168 1758
沈阳医学院 沈阳 国立 1945 1946-1949 1381 1350
奉天美术专科学校 沈阳 私立 1946 1947-1949 240 240
辽东学院 沈阳 私立 1946 1947-1948 2113 2036
北洋大学 天津 天津 天津 国立 1912 1910-1935 3224 2689
中正大学 泰和 南昌 国立 1940 1940-1949 6171 3736
华西协合大学 成都 成都 成都 教会 1910 1924-1926 464 355
齐鲁大学 济南 成都 济南 教会 1864/1917 1876-1935 2265 1459
铭贤学院 太原 成都 太原 私立 1907/1943 1941-1950 1102 1024
安徽大学 安庆 安庆 芜湖 国立 1928 1929-1949 3769 3105
广西大学 梧州 桂林 桂林 国立 1928 1929-1945 3233 3074
河南大学 开封 南阳 开封 国立 1902/1912 1931-1934 692 692
贵州大学 贵阳 贵阳 贵阳 国立 1902/1939 1941-1948 808 741
TOTAL 186843 154833

[1] These include 80,425 student records from 11 universities, six institutes, and one specialized tertiary school whose data, with two notable exceptions, were publicly accessible. The 11 universities are Utopia, St. John’s, University of Shanghai, National Chi Nan, Soochow, National Sun Yat-sen, Fukien Christian, National Hunan, l’Université Franco-Chinoise, Nanking, and National Peking University Medical Centre.  The six institutes are Hangchow Christian College, Chaoyang College, National Shanghai Institute of Business, Hsiang-Ya Medical College, Ginling College, National Normal College.  The one specialized school is the Municipal Shanghai Institute of Industry.  All of the student records from these institutions except for Ginling College and Nanking University are publicly accessible.

[2] James LEE added 34,829 proprietary student records from Zhejiang University (23,795), Shanghai Jiaotong University (9,932), and Mingxian Institute (1,102). Mingyu ZHANG added 16,462 proprietary student records from Tsinghua University 1921-1951 and 346 from Yenching University 1947-1949.

[3] These ten tertiary institutions include seven universities, five of which are from published sources – Cheeloo (2,265), Fujen (2,239), Peking (12,885), Xiamen (798) and West China Union (464).  The student records from the other two universities,  Lingnan (2,168) and Zhongzheng (6,171), as well as two institutes – Liaodong Law School (2,113), and National Shenyang Medical School (1,381), and one specialized tertiary school – Fengtian Academy of Fine Arts (240) are all from publicly accessible unpublished sources.

[4] Haozhe Han and coders under his supervision added grandparents, great grandparents, and guarantors’ name, place of origin, and residential address to 17,281 existing Sun Yat-sen University records in the CUSD-ROC records while Chengcheng Liang under Bamboo’s and Chen Liang’s direction completed the coding of 17,139 Datong, St. Johns, and Hujiang students whose CUSD-ROC records did not originally include their parents’ and guarantors’ names.

[5] These also include 3224 student records for 2689 unique students from Beiyang University contributed by Li YANG.  We continue to search actively for student data for Yingshi University in Jinhua, Zhejiang and are also hopeful of eventually gaining access to additional student records for Yenching University from the Peking University Archives.

In contrast to the CUSD-ROC which began in 2010, the CUSD-OS and CUSD-QBY are just five years old.  In 2018, Bamboo personally entered Yuan Tung-li’s data collection of Chinese PhD students in the United States (1905-1960) and Europe (1907-1962) to begin the CUSD-OS.  Subsequently other students under the direction of Yibei Wu and Li Yang did the data entry for Chinese students studying in Japan, and for Chinese non-PhD students studying in the USA and elsewhere.  It was not until late 2022 / early 2023, that Yibei Wu added the CUSD-QBY to the CUSD based on her collection from the Academia Historia Office 國史館檔案史料 in Taibei, Taiwan of digitized student records for almost 100,000 Chinese students attending close to 300 proto-university tertiary institutions called daxuetang 大学堂, gaodengxuetang 高等学堂, or zhuanmenxuexiao 专门学校.  These records include some 7000 regular university daxue 大学 students whose records should eventually be moved to the CUSD-ROC, but are currently located in the CUSD-QBY.

Outputs

Results from the CUSD-PRC have been published as a Chinese article, 无声的革命: 北京大学、苏州大学的学生社会来源 1952-2002 (China’s Silent Revolution: the Social Origins of Peking University and Soochow University Undergraduates, 1949-2002), in the January 2012 issue of 中国社会科学 (Chinese Social Science) and as a book with the same title in August 2013 by Beijing Joint Publishing. These publications inspired over one hundred news and editorial print articles, interviews, webcasts, and broadcasts posted on one thousand Chinese websites in 2012 and 2013 and continue five years later to receive attention in the popular media.  The book version was awarded the 2014 third prize for Outstanding Achievement in Philosophy and Social Science by the Jiangsu Academy of Social Science.  The article version was reprinted by 中国社会科学 in 中国社会科学创刊35周年论文选 in 2017 as an example of the best scholarship in the thirty-five years from 1980 to 2014.

We will soon publish in 2024/2025 a prequel book 梁 晨 (Chen LIANG), 任韵竹 (Yunzhu REN), 李中清 (James Z. LEE).《启山林者:中国现代知识阶层的形成,1912-1952》(Our forefathers and the formation of the modern Chinese academe). 中国社会科学文献出版社, on the social origins of university students from 1911 to 1949 based largely on student records from 34 universities collected in the CUSD-ROC, supplemented with employment records from the China Professional Occupation Datasets (CPOD).

The Jiangsu Academy of Social Science has also awarded two related articles《江山代有才人出,各领风骚数十年:中国精英教育四段论,1865-2014》. 《社会学研究》(Sociological Research第三期 (May/June): 48-70, and《民国上海大学生社会来源量化研究,1913-1949》,  《历史研究》(Historical Research) 第三期 (May): 76-92, a 2017 third prize (三等奖)  and a 2020 second prize (二等奖) respectively for Outstanding Achievement in Philosophy and Social Science.

Project Funding

James Z. Lee PI (Co-I Cameron Campbell, Liang Chen) The Social and Spatial Origins of China’s Educated Elite: 1865-2014. Hong Kong Research Grants Council Project Number 16602117, 2017-2020

梁晨:“金陵大学史第三卷(1937-1952)”,南京大学校史工程;2016-11

梁晨:“民国大学从业群体生活水平与社会结构研究——以清华为中心的考察”,国家社科基金后期资助项目;2016-10

梁晨:“民国中央大学、金陵大学的招生政策与学生来源研究”,南京大学校史专项项目;2015-07

李伯重:“20世纪中国大学生社会来源变迁的量化研究”,国家社科基金一般项目,15BZS073;2015-06-16

James Z. Lee PI (Co-I Hongbo Wang, Liang Chen) Social Origins of University Students in Republican China. Hong Kong Research Grants Council Project Number, 640613; 2014-2016

梁晨:“民国以来精英教育生源的变迁”,南京大学人文基金项目;2010-2015

梁晨:“民国时期大学生社会来源的历史考察”,国家社科基金青年项目,10CZS023;2010-2015

Danching Ruan PI (Co-I James Z. Lee, Shanhua Yang). Educational Stratification in China–A View from the Top. Hong Kong Research Grants Council Project Number, HKBU 2447/06H; 2006-2008

Research Output

For a summary of our research output from the CUSD, please see Part Two of our on-line course Understanding China, 1700-2000: A Data Analytic Approach – Who Gets Education as well as the books, articles, and presentations below.

Academic Publications: Books

Liang Chen, Zhang Hao, Li Lan, Ruan Danqing, Cameron Campbell, Lee, James.  2013, 《无声的革命: 北京大学、苏州大学的学生社会来源 1949-2002》(Silent revolution: the social origins of Peking University and Soochow University undergraduates, 1949-2002).  Beijing Joint Publishing.  This book was awarded the 2014 third prize for Outstanding Achievement in Philosophy and Social Science by the Jiangsu Academy of Social Science.

Academic Publications: Articles

梁晨 (Chen LIANG), 任韵竹 (Bamboo Y. REN), 李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2023. “学生学业与家庭关系研究《教育史研究》(Educational History Research)第 1 期,71-87.

Lee, James Z., Bamboo Y. Ren, Chen Liang. 2022. “Meritocracy and the Making of the Chinese Academe Redux, 1912-1952.” In Michael Szonyi and Tarun Khanna. Eds. Forthcoming. Making Meritocracy: Lessons from China and India, from antiquity to the present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 137-169.

梁晨(Chen LIANG),李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2022. “从求实到求是:数字史学的价值与追求 —— 兼与成一农教授讨论”《清华大学学报》(哲学社会科学版)2022年第3期.

梁晨(Chen LIANG), 李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2021.“从微观数据到宏观历史”(From Microdata to Macrohistory)《中国社会科学评价》2: 84-92. Reprinted in 人大复印报刊资料《历史学》2021年10月.

梁晨 (Chen LIANG), 任韵竹 (Bamboo Y. REN), 李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2021. “民国大学生地理来源量化考析” (Quantitative Study of the Geographic Origins of University Students During the Republic of China) 《近代史研究》3 (May): 124-142.

Bamboo Y. Ren, Chen Liang, James Z. Lee. 2020. “Meritocracy and the Making of the Chinese Academe, 1912-1952.” China Quarterly, Vol 244 (December): 942-968. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741020001289

梁 晨 (Chen LIANG), 任韵竹 (Yunzhu REN), 董浩 (Hao DONG), 李中清 (James Z. Lee)。2017。 <江山代有才人出,各领风骚数十年:中国精英教育四段论,1865-2014>. 《社会学研究》。第三期 (May): 48-70.

梁 晨 (Chen LIANG), 任韵竹 (Yunzhu REN), 王雨前 (Yuqian WANG), 李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2017. <民国上海大学生社会来源量化研究,1913-1949>. 《历史研究》。第三期 (May): 76-92.

梁晨、董浩、李中清,2015,《量化数据库与历史研究》,《历史研究》第2期,第113-128页。

梁晨 、李中清,2014, 《大数据, 新史实与理论演进—以学籍卡材料的史料价值与研究方法为中心的讨论》, 《清华大学学报》 (哲社版) 第5期,第104-113页。  2015 Parkson Best Article Award.

梁晨、李中清 等,2012,《无声的革命:北京大学与苏州大学学生社会来源研究,1952-2002》 (Silent revolution: the social origins of Peking University and Soochow University undergraduates, 1952-2002),《中国社会科学》(Social Sciences in China) 第1期,第98-118页。

Academic Presentations

International Confucian Association, Harmony and Cooperation Towards a New Era of Digital Civilization, Tsinghua University, Beijing, September 9, 2022

European Summer School in Chinese Digital Humanities, Aix Marseille University Maison de la Recherche, Aix-en-Provence, June 20-23, 2022

南京大学南京论坛, Nanjing China, December 11, 2021

Aspire Institute, Transforming the Lives of Low-income, First-in-family-to-college Students, Harvard, Cambridge Massachusetts, September 24, 2021

The Role of International Education in the Creation of the Chinese Academe, 1909-1989, Duke-Kunshan University, December 16-18, 2019

ENP-China Workshop on Elites, Knowledge, and Power: The Formation and Transformation of Elites in Modern China, Aix-Marseille University Maison de la Recherche, Aix-En-Provence, October 7-9, 2019

IUSSP Conference on Linking Past to Present: Long-term Perspectives on Micro-level Demographic Processes, Reitaku University, Tokyo, December 9-11, 2016

41st Annual Social Science History Association Meeting, Chicago, November 17-20, 2016

“大学与近代中国”国际学术研讨, Central China Normal University, November 12-13, 2016

China Biographical Database Project (CBDB), Harvard University, November 9, 2016

Asian Pacific Higher Education Research Partnership Senior Seminar on Gender and the Changing Face of Higher Education in Asia Pacific,  the Education University of Hong Kong and Lingnan University, October 27-29, 2016

Roundtable on Elites, Politics and the Economy. American Sociological Association 111th Annual Meeting, Seattle, August 20-23, 2016

North American Chinese Sociologists Association Conference, Seattle, August 19, 2016

International Sociological Association RC 28 Committee Meeting on Social Stratification and Social Mobility, National University of Singapore, May 26-28, 2016

Department of Sociology, Wuhan University, April 16, 2016

School of History and Culture, Central China Normal University, April 15, 2016

“大学与现代中国”, Nanjing University, March 12-15, 2016

南京大学社会学院合美博士论坛, Nanjing University, March 2, 2016

“大数据时代下的历史研究”国际学术研讨会, Qingdao, December 4-6, 2015

第十二届科举制与科举学国际学术研讨会 (12th International Academic Meeting on Keju system and Keju studies), Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China, November 23-25, 2015

北京大学北京论坛, Peking University, Beijing China, November 5-9, 2015

12th Conference of the European Sociological Association (ESA), Czech Technical University, Prague, August 25-28, 2015

Harvard University and Goldman Sachs Global Education Conference on Opportunity and Equality in the Knowledge Economy, Harvard University, June 17-19 2015

Conference on Higher Education and Chinese Society in the 20th Century, Taishan University, Tai’an, Shandong, China, April 10-12, 2015

Research Center for Chinese Social History, Shanxi University, November 17, 2014

“第十一届科举制与科举学” 学术研讨会 (11th International Academic Meeting on Keju system and Keju studies), Guangzhou, November 15, 2014

Harvard Yenching International Symposium on Modern Chinese Higher Education in a Global Perspective & 150th Anniversary of Tengchow College (全球化视野下的中国近代高等教育暨登州文会馆150周年), Shandong University, Jinan, October 11-15, 2014

近代中國教育史研討會,台灣新竹福華渡假飯店, July 8-11, 2014

首都师范大学青年学人讲坛, Capital Normal University, April 23, 2014

“第四届中国社会与中国研究”国际研讨会, Nanjing, October 27, 2012

“第五届全国青年史学工作者”学术研讨会, Guangzhou, October 15, 2012

“新史料与新史学:机遇与挑战”国际学术研讨会, Hangzhou, August 25, 2012

Data Access

Data from existing university archives are not available for public data release. While the remaining data are potentially available, preference will be given for collaborative research proposals. Interested parties should write directly to Liang Chen, copying Yunzhu Ren and James Z. Lee.